Cardio Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.

Allerton, T. D., Proctor, D. N., Stephens, J. M., Dugas, T. R., Spielmann, G., & Irving, B. A. (2018). l-Citrulline Supplementation: Impact on Cardiometabolic Health. Nutrients, 10(7), 921.

Gökbel, H., Gül, I., Belviranl, M., & Okudan, N. (2010). The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise in sedentary men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(1), 97–102.

Karlsson, J., Lin, L., Sylvén, C., & Jansson, E. (1996). Muscle ubiquinone in healthy physically active males. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 156(2), 169–172.

Mizuno, K., Tanaka, M., Nozaki, S., Mizuma, H., Ataka, S., Tahara, T., Sugino, T., Shirai, T., Kajimoto, Y., Kuratsune, H., Kajimoto, O., & Watanabe, Y. (2008). Antifatigue effects of coenzyme Q10 during physical fatigue. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 24(4), 293–299.

Mozos, I., Flangea, C., Vlad, D. C., Gug, C., Mozos, C., Stoian, D., Luca, C. T., Horbańczuk, J. O., Horbańczuk, O. K., & Atanasov, A. G. (2021). Effects of Anthocyanins on Vascular Health. Biomolecules, 11(6), 811.

Oyanagi, E., Yano, H., Uchida, M., Utsumi, K., & Sasaki, J. (2011). Protective action of L-carnitine on cardiac mitochondrial function and structure against fatty acid stress. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 412(1), 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.07.039

Pauly, D. F., & Pepine, C. J. (2000). D-Ribose as a supplement for cardiac energy metabolism. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5(4), 249–258.

Schaffer, S. W., Jong, C. J., Ramila, K. C., & Azuma, J. (2010). Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle. Journal of Biomedical Science, 17 Suppl 1, S2.

Yamori, Y., Taguchi, T., Hamada, A., Kunimasa, K., Mori, H., & Mori, M. (2010). Taurine in health and diseases: consistent evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies. Journal of Biomedical Science, 17(1), S6.

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Carnitine fact sheet for health professionals. Updated: March 29, 2021