Joint Defense Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.

Butawan, M., Benjamin, R. L., & Bloomer, R. J. (2017). Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement. Nutrients, 9(3), 290.

Kare, S. K., Vinay, V., Maresz, K., Prisk, V., & Vik, H. (2022). Tamarindus indica Seed Extract-Based Botanical Compositions Alleviate Knee Pain and Improve Joint Function in Mild-to-Moderate Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2022, e2226139.

Mogoşanu, G. D., Biţă, A., Bejenaru, L. E., Bejenaru, C., Croitoru, O., Rău, G., Rogoveanu, O.-C., Florescu, D. N., Neamţu, J., Scorei, I. D., & Scorei, R. I. (2016). Calcium Fructoborate for Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Biological Trace Element Research, 172, 277–281.

Pietrzkowski, Z., Phelan, M. J., Keller, R., Shu, C., Argumedo, R., & Reyes-Izquierdo, T. (2014). Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 895–899.

Rao, P. S., Ramanjaneyulu, Y. S., Prisk, V. R., & Schurgers, L. J. (2019). A Combination of Tamarindus indica seeds and Curcuma longa Rhizome Extracts Improves Knee Joint Function and Alleviates Pain in Non-Arthritic Adults Following Physical Activity. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 16(6), 845–853.

NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Turmeric. Updated May 2020.

MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Glucosamine. Reviewed 10/05/2021.