PM Foundation No. 51 Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.


Ávila-Román, J., Soliz-Rueda, J. R., Bravo, F. I., Aragonès, G., Suárez, M., Arola-Arnal, A., Mulero, M., Salvadó, M.-J., Arola, L., Torres-Fuentes, C., & Muguerza, B. (2021). Phenolic compounds and biological rhythms: Who takes the lead? Trends in Food Science & Technology, 113, 77–85.

Blumberg, J. B., Frei, B. B., Fulgoni, V. L., Weaver, C. M., & Zeisel, S. H. (2017). Impact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. Adults. Nutrients, 9(8), E849.

Fantacone, M. L., Lowry, M. B., Uesugi, S. L., Michels, A. J., Choi, J., Leonard, S. W., Gombart, S. K., Gombart, J. S., Bobe, G., & Gombart, A. F. (2020). The Effect of a Multivitamin and Mineral Supplement on Immune Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial. Nutrients, 12(8), 2447.

Galli, R. L., Shukitt-Hale, B., Youdim, K. A., & Joseph, J. A. (2002). Fruit polyphenolics and brain aging: nutritional interventions targeting age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 959, 128–132.

Kang, S., Lim, Y., Kim, Y. J., Jung, E. S., Suh, D. H., Lee, C. H., Park, E., Hong, J., Velliquette, R. A., Kwon, O., & Kim, J. Y. (2019). Multivitamin and Mineral Supplementation Containing Phytonutrients Scavenges Reactive Oxygen Species in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients, 11(1), 101.

Pérez-Jiménez, J., Neveu, V., Vos, F., & Scalbert, A. (2010). Identification of the 100 richest dietary sources of polyphenols: an application of the Phenol-Explorer database. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64(3), S112–S120.

Sharma, P., Han, S. M., Gillies, N., Thorstensen, E. B., Goy, M., Barnett, M. P. G., Roy, N. C., Cameron-Smith, D., & Milan, A. M. (2020). Circulatory and Urinary B-Vitamin Responses to Multivitamin Supplement Ingestion Differ between Older and Younger Adults. Nutrients, 12(11), 3529.

Ward, E. (2014). Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements. Nutrition Journal, 13, 72.

Wilking, M., Ndiaye, M., Mukhtar, H., & Ahmad, N. (2013). Circadian Rhythm Connections to Oxidative Stress: Implications for Human Health. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 19(2), 192–208.

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Multivitamin/mineral supplements fact sheet for health professionals. Updated October 12, 2021.