Pre-Game Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.

Bahmani, M., Shirzad, H., Rafieian, S., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2015). Silybum marianum: Beyond Hepatoprotection. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 20(4), 292–301.

Chen, M. F., Boyce, H. W., & Hsu, J. M. (1990). Effect of ascorbic acid on plasma alcohol clearance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 9(3), 185–189.

Clemente Plaza, N., Reig García-Galbis, M., & Martínez-Espinosa, R. M. (2018). Effects of the Usage of l-Cysteine (l-Cys) on Human Health. Molecules, 23(3), 575.

Eriksson, C. J. P., Metsälä, M., Möykkynen, T., Mäkisalo, H., Kärkkäinen, O., Palmén, M., Salminen, J. E., & Kauhanen, J. (2020). L-Cysteine Containing Vitamin Supplement Which Prevents or Alleviates Alcohol-related Hangover Symptoms: Nausea, Headache, Stress and Anxiety. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 55(6), 660–666.

Irwin, C., Leveritt, M., Shum, D., & Desbrow, B. (2013). The effects of dehydration, moderate alcohol consumption, and rehydration on cognitive functions. Alcohol, 47(3), 203–213.

Mackus, M., Loo, A. J. van de, Garssen, J., Kraneveld, A. D., Scholey, A., & Verster, J. C. (2020). The Role of Alcohol Metabolism in the Pathology of Alcohol Hangover. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(11), E3421.

Peana, A. T., Assaretti, A. R., Muggironi, G., Enrico, P., & Diana, M. (2009). Reduction of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde induced motivational properties by L-cysteine. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(1), 43–48.

Susick, R. L., & Zannoni, V. G. (1987). Effect of ascorbic acid on the consequences of acute alcohol consumption in humans. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 41(5), 502–509.

Wiese, J., McPherson, S., Odden, M. C., & Shlipak, M. G. (2004). Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(12), 1334–1340.

Wu, D., & Cederbaum, A. I. (2003). Alcohol, Oxidative Stress, and Free Radical Damage. Alcohol Research & Health, 27(4), 277–284.

Zimatkin, S. M., & Zimatkina, T. I. (1996). Thiamine deficiency as predisposition to, and consequence of, increased alcohol consumption. Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire), 31(4), 421–427.

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. Guideline 4: Limit Foods and Beverages Higher in Added Sugars, Saturated Fat, and Sodium, and Limit Alcoholic Beverages. 9th Edition. December 2020.