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Pre-Workout Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.

Campos, H. O., Drummond, L. R., Rodrigues, Q. T., Machado, F. S. M., Pires, W., Wanner, S. P., & Coimbra, C. C. (2018). Nitrate supplementation improves physical performance specifically in non-athletes during prolonged open-ended tests: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition, 119(6), 636–657.

Domínguez, R., Maté-Muñoz, J. L., Cuenca, E., García-Fernández, P., Mata-Ordoñez, F., Lozano-Estevan, M. C., Veiga-Herreros, P., da Silva, S. F., & Garnacho-Castaño, M. V. (2018). Effects of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent high-intensity exercise efforts. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 2.

Duncan, M. J., & Clarke, N. D. (2014). The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men. Journal of Sports Medicine, 2014, 563043.

Fernstrom, J. D., & Fernstrom, M. H. (2007). Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and catecholamine synthesis and function in the brain. The Journal of Nutrition, 137(6 Suppl 1), 1539S-1547S; discussion 1548S.

Gonzalez, A. M., & Trexler, E. T. (2020). Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Humans: A Review of the Current Literature. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 34(5), 1480–1495.

Ishaque, S., Shamseer, L., Bukutu, C., & Vohra, S. (2012). Rhodiola rosea for physical and mental fatigue: a systematic review. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12, 70.

Lima, W. P., Carnevali, L. C., Eder, R., Costa Rosa, L. F. B. P., Bacchi, E. M., & Seelaender, M. C. L. (2005). Lipid metabolism in trained rats: effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 24(6), 1019–1028.

Moustakas, D., Mezzio, M., Rodriguez, B. R., Constable, M. A., Mulligan, M. E., & Voura, E. B. (2015). Guarana provides additional stimulation over caffeine alone in the planarian model. PloS One, 10(4), e0123310.

Nemzer, B. V., Centner, C., Zdzieblik, D., Fink, B., Hunter, J. M., & König, D. (2018). Oxidative stress or redox signalling - new insights into the effects of a proprietary multifunctional botanical dietary supplement. Free Radical Research, 52(3), 362–372.

Wankhede, S., Langade, D., Joshi, K., Sinha, S. R., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2015). Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12, 43.