Bone Defense Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.

Avenell, A., Mak, J. C. S., & O’Connell, D. (2014). Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD000227.

Brennan, O., Sweeney, J., O’Meara, B., Widaa, A., Bonnier, F., Byrne, H. J., O’Gorman, D. M., & O’Brien, F. J. (2017). A Natural, Calcium-Rich Marine Multi-mineral Complex Preserves Bone Structure, Composition and Strength in an Ovariectomised Rat Model of Osteoporosis. Calcified Tissue International, 101(4), 445–455.

Costa‐Rodrigues, J., Carmo, S. C., Silva, J. C., & Fernandes, M. H. R. (2012). Inhibition of human in vitro osteoclastogenesis by Equisetum arvense. Cell Proliferation, 45(6), 566–576.

Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S. S., Krall, E. A., & Dallal, G. E. (1997). Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Density in Men and Women 65 Years of Age or Older. New England Journal of Medicine, 337(10), 670–676.

Liu, C., Kuang, X., Li, K., Guo, X., Deng, Q., & Li, D. (2020). Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food & Function, 11(12), 10817–10827.

Mandatori, D., Pelusi, L., Schiavone, V., Pipino, C., Di Pietro, N., & Pandolfi, A. (2021). The Dual Role of Vitamin K2 in “Bone-Vascular Crosstalk”: Opposite Effects on Bone Loss and Vascular Calcification. Nutrients, 13(4), 1222.

Pizzorno, L. (2015). Nothing Boring About Boron. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, 14(4), 35–48.

Schurgers, L. J., Teunissen, K. J. F., Hamulyák, K., Knapen, M. H. J., Vik, H., & Vermeer, C. (2007). Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7. Blood, 109(8), 3279–3283.

van Ballegooijen, A. J., Pilz, S., Tomaschitz, A., Grübler, M. R., & Verheyen, N. (2017). The Synergistic Interplay between Vitamins D and K for Bone and Cardiovascular Health: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2017, 7454376.

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Calcium fact sheet for health professionals. Updated November 17, 2021

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin D fact sheet for health professionals. Updated August 17, 2021.

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Magnesium fact sheet for health professionals. Updated August 11, 2021.