Sleep Ingredient References

Our formulations are created with carefully sourced, research-backed ingredients.

Aspy, D. J., Madden, N. A., & Delfabbro, P. (2018). Effects of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and a B Complex Preparation on Dreaming and Sleep. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 125(3), 451–462.

Awad, R., Arnason, J. T., Trudeau, V., Bergeron, C., Budzinski, J. W., Foster, B. C., & Merali, Z. (2003). Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 10(8), 640–649.

Bannai, M., & Kawai, N. (2012). New therapeutic strategy for amino acid medicine: glycine improves the quality of sleep. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 118(2), 145–148.

Fatemeh, G., Sajjad, M., Niloufar, R., Neda, S., Leila, S., & Khadijeh, M. (2021). Effect of melatonin supplementation on sleep quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Neurology.

Howatson, G., Bell, P. G., Tallent, J., Middleton, B., McHugh, M. P., & Ellis, J. (2012). Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality. European Journal of Nutrition, 51(8), 909–916.

Imeri, L., Mancia, M., Bianchi, S., & Opp, M. R. (1999). 5-hydroxytryptophan, but not l-tryptophan, alters sleep and brain temperature in rats. Neuroscience, 95(2), 445–452.

Lin, F. J., Pierce, M. M., Sehgal, A., Wu, T., Skipper, D. C., & Chabba, R. (2010). Effect of taurine and caffeine on sleep-wake activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature and Science of Sleep, 2, 221–231.

Miroddi, M., Calapai, G., Navarra, M., Minciullo, P. L., & Gangemi, S. (2013). Passiflora incarnata L.: ethnopharmacology, clinical application, safety and evaluation of clinical trials. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 150(3), 791–804.

Monti, J. M. (2011). Serotonin control of sleep-wake behavior. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 15(4), 269–281.

Nakagawa, K., & Kuriyama, K. (1975). Effect of taurine on alteration in adrenal functions induced by stress. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 25(6), 737–746.

Wyatt, R. J., Zarcone, V., Engelman, K., Dement, W. C., Snyder, F., & Sjoerdsma, A. (1971). Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on the sleep of normal human subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 30(6), 505–509.

NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Melatonin: What you need to know. Updated January 2021.

National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Valerian fact sheet for health professionals. March 15, 2013.